Week 1 – Tugas Individu 1 – 0594M

9 May 2011 at 22:13 (Enterprise System)

Minggu 01 – Concepts Functionality, and Cost Effectiveness of ERP


http://www.cio.com/article/40323/ERP_Definition_and_Solutions

ERP Definition and Solutions

ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) topics covering definition, objectives, systems and solutions.

By Thomas Wailgum

CIO — Compiled by Christopher Koch and Thomas Wailgum

Editor’s Note: This article was updated April 17, 2008 to reflect changes in ERP technology.

What is ERP?

Enterprise resource planning software, or ERP, doesn’t live up to its acronym. Forget about planning—it doesn’t do much of that—and forget about resource, a throwaway term. But remember the enterprise part. This is ERP’s true ambition. It attempts to integrate all departments and functions across a company onto a single computer system that can serve all those different departments’ particular needs.

That is a tall order, building a single software program that serves the needs of people in finance as well as it does the people in human resources and in the warehouse. Each of those departments typically has its own computer system optimized for the particular ways that the department does its work. But ERP combines them all together into a single, integrated software program that runs off a single database so that the various departments can more easily share information and communicate with each other.

That integrated approach can have a tremendous payback if companies install the software correctly.

Take a customer order, for example. Typically, when a customer places an order, that order begins a mostly paper-based journey from in-basket to in-basket around the company, often being keyed and rekeyed into different departments’ computer systems along the way. All that lounging around in in-baskets causes delays and lost orders, and all the keying into different computer systems invites errors. Meanwhile, no one in the company truly knows what the status of the order is at any given point because there is no way for the finance department, for example, to get into the warehouse’s computer system to see whether the item has been shipped. “You’ll have to call the warehouse” is the familiar refrain heard by frustrated customers.

ERP vanquishes the old standalone computer systems in finance, HR, manufacturing and the warehouse, and replaces them with a single unified software program divided into software modules that roughly approximate the old standalone systems. Finance, manufacturing and the warehouse all still get their own software, except now the software is linked together so that someone in finance can look into the warehouse software to see if an order has been shipped. Most vendors’ ERP software is flexible enough that you can install some modules without buying the whole package. Many companies, for example, will just install an ERP finance or HR module and leave the rest of the functions for another day.

How can ERP improve a company’s business performance?

ERP’s best hope for demonstrating value is as a sort of battering ram for improving the way your company takes a customer order and processes it into an invoice and revenue—otherwise known as the order fulfillment process. That is why ERP is often referred to as back-office software. It doesn’t handle the up-front selling process (although most ERP vendors have developed CRM software or acquired pure-play CRM providers that can do this); rather, ERP takes a customer order and provides a software road map for automating the different steps along the path to fulfilling it. When a customer service representative enters a customer order into an ERP system, he has all the information necessary to complete the order (the customer’s credit rating and order history from the finance module, the company’s inventory levels from the warehouse module and the shipping dock’s trucking schedule from the logistics module, for example).

People in these different departments all see the same information and can update it. When one department finishes with the order it is automatically routed via the ERP system to the next department. To find out where the order is at any point, you need only log in to the ERP system and track it down. With luck, the order process moves like a bolt of lightning through the organization, and customers get their orders faster and with fewer errors than before. ERP can apply that same magic to the other major business processes, such as employee benefits or financial reporting.

_____________________________________

  1.  Berdasarkan article di atas jelaskan dalam suatu ringkasan apa yang dimaksud oleh Thomas Wailgum?
  2. Dengan bahasa Anda sendiri jelaskan apa yang Anda pahami mengenai konsep ERP
  3. Mengapa ERP penting untuk diterapkan di dalam perusahaan ?

Jawaban

  1. Yang dimaksud oleh Thomas Wailgum adalah ERP adalah integrasi semua departemen dan fungsi seluruh perusahaan ke satu sistem komputer yang dapat melayani kebutuhan-kebutuhan khusus semua departemen yang berbeda-beda. Perbedaan dari integrated system dan ERP adalah kalau integrated system adalah membangun sebuah program perangkat lunak tunggal yang melayani kebutuhan user dibidang keuangan, dan juga seperti halnya orang-orang dalam sumber daya manusia dan di gudang. Masing-masing departemen biasanya memiliki komputer sendiri sistem optimal untuk cara-cara tertentu yang setiap departemen dapat melakukan tugasnya. Sedangkan, ERP adalah Menggabungkan semua fungsi menjadi satu program, perangkat lunak yang terintegrasi yang berjalan dari sebuah database tunggal sehingga berbagai departemen lebih mudah mendapatkan informasi, berbagi dan berkomunikasi satu sama lain. ERP berhasil mengatasi sistem komputer yang berdiri sendiri di bidang keuangan, SDM, manufaktur dan gudang, dan menggantikan sistem-sistem model lama tersebut dengan program perangkat lunak tunggal yang terintegrasi yang dibagi menjadi modul-modul perangkat lunak yang kira-kira mendekati sistem mandiri yang model lama. Dengan system ERP, dapat meningkatkan cara perusahaan mengambil pesanan dari pelanggan dan memprosesnya pembuatan faktur dan pendapatan atau dikenal sebagai proses pemenuhan pesanan. Itulah sebabnya mengapa ERP sering disebut sebagai software back-office. Dengan ERP dapat mengambil order dari pelanggan dan menyediakan suatu program road map untuk otomisasi perbedaan lagkah-langkah untuk dapat memenuhinya.
  1. Konsep ERP adalah memprediksi dan menyeimbangkan permintaan dari customer dan pasokan meterial/produk yang dibutuhkan dengan membuat strategic planning, bussiness planning, forecasting dan manajemen permintaan, sales dan operation planning, master scheduling, detail planning dan execution processes, serta capacity planning. Sistem ERP terdiri atas beberapa sub sistem (modul) yaitu sistem finansial, sistem distribusi, sistem manufaktur, sistem inventori, dan sistem human resource. Masing-masing sub sistem terhubung dengan sebuah database terpusat yang menyimpan berbagai informasi yang dibutuhkan oleh masing-masing sub sistem. Sub sistem mewakili sebuah bagian fungsionalitas dari sebuah organisasi perusahaan.
  1. ERP Penting untuk diterapkan didalam perusahaan karena:

–          Sistem ERP mengintegrasikan mayoritas bisnis proses yang ada

–          Sistem ERP memproses seluruh transaksi organisasi perusahaan.

–          Sistem ERP mengijinkan pengguna mengakses data secara real time.

–          Sistem ERP memprediksi dan menyeimbangkan permintaan dari customer dan pasokan meterial/produk.

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